Meddelelse fra Kommisjonen til Europaparlamentet, Rådet, Den europeiske økonomiske og sosiale komite og Regionsutvalget. På vei mot automatisert mobilitet: en EU-strategi for fremtiden
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. On the road to automated mobility: An EU strategy for mobility of the future
Dansk departementsnotat offentliggjort 16.7.2018
BAKGRUNN (fra kommisjonsmeddelelsen, engelsk utgave)
1. Connected and automated mobility is a new opportunity for Europe
Mobility is at a cross-roads. There have been many significant steps forward over the last century in road transport. But mobility is now crossing a new – digital – frontier with increasing automation and connectivity allowing vehicles to "talk" to each other, to the road infrastructure, and to other road users. These develoments, that benefit from the progress in the field of Artificial Intelligence, open up an entirely new level of cooperation between road users which could potentially bring enormous benefits for them and for the mobility system as a whole, including making transport safer, more accessible and sustainable.
Driverless vehicles will change our lives, just as steam trains and motor cars did before them. They will shape the future of road transport and could lead to significantly reduced transport costs. They could pave the way for new services and offer new ways to respond to the ever-increasing demand for mobility of people and goods. Once the current teething problems have been properly addressed – and they must be, driverless vehicles could significantly improve road safety since human error is estimated to play a role in 94 per cent of accidents. Driverless vehicles could bring mobility to those who cannot drive themselves (e.g. elderly or disabled people) or are under-served by public transport. They could encourage car-sharing schemes and 'mobility as a service' (i.e. selling rides, not cars). They could also accelerate vehicle electrification and electro-mobility. Ultimately, driverless vehicles could free up the space wasted in parking and revolutionise urban planning.
The EU is one of the largest exporters of vehicle technologies. Its businesses stand to benefit from the dynamic growth of the sector. High levels of investment will be needed and new jobs will be created to develop new technologies and services. The EU automotive industry, with its expertise in developing vehicle technologies, is well-positioned to seize this opportunity. Moreover, automated vehicles will also have spill-over effects on many other sectors in the value chain (e.g. semiconductors, processing technologies, digital maps) and the new business models enabled or facilitated by driverless mobility (e.g. electronic commerce, 'mobility as a service').
However, we cannot expect such technological changes alone to solve the challenges of congestion, transport emissions and road fatalities. We need to manage properly the long transition phase and make sure future vehicles are embedded in a transport system that favours social inclusion, low emissions and overall efficiency. We need to strengthen the links between vehicles and traffic management, between public and privately owned data, between collective and individual transport and between all transport service providers and modes.
Initial studies show that a majority of Europeans citizens have a good acceptance of driverless cars with 58 per cent willing to take a ride in a driverless vehicle. However, as the latest accidents in the United States have shown, in order for automated mobility to gain societal acceptance only the highest safety and security standards will suffice. New risks such as overreliance on, and misuse of, technology should be addressed. New questions such as the level of infrastructure support for driverless vehicles and how this infrastructure should interact with the vehicles should be tackled. Ethical issues related to transferring the responsibility of driving to vehicles must also be addressed. This includes our expectations for how a vehicle should react when an accident cannot be avoided and criteria used to determine vehicle's decision. Linked to this we need to ask ourselves who is liable when a driverless vehicle is involved in an accident.
It is also essential to find the right balance between sharing public and private data, enabling fair and effective competition for innovative solutions, and data protection. As we share more data and as the number of players involved increases, it is necessary to ensure that Europe remains competitive in all phases of driverless mobility, up to and including bringing these final services to our citizens and our businesses. Finally, the disruptive effect of driverless mobility on the labour market will have to be addressed, particularly the need for skilling and reskilling (e.g. professional drivers would initially gain freedom to perform additional tasks but could in the long-term no longer be needed in the vehicles).
Provided the regulatory and enabling framework is in place to address all these issues the first vehicles driving themselves under specific driving conditions could be available on a commercial basis by 2020, and they could become commonplace by 2030.
In other words, driverless mobility promises great benefits but also poses serious questions. We are in a global race to reap the benefits and answer the questions raised, as this provides a major opportunity for growth and jobs. The new market for automated and connected vehicles is expected to grow exponentially and large economic benefits are expected, with for instance revenues exceeding EUR 620 billion by 2025 for the EU automotive industry and EUR 180 billion for the EU electronic sector. Automated mobility could therefore support the EU ambition for a stronger and more competitive industry, creating new jobs and boosting economic growth.
With this Communication, the Commission proposes a comprehensive EU approach towards connected and automated mobility setting out a clear, forward looking and ambitious European agenda. This agenda provides a common vision and identifies supporting actions for developing and deploying key technologies, services and infrastructure. It will ensure that EU legal and policy frameworks are ready to support the deployment of safe connected and automated mobility, while simultaneously addressing societal and environmental concerns which will be decisive for public acceptance.