Meddelelse fra Kommisjonen til Europaparlamentet, Rådet, Den europeiske økonomiske og sosiale komite og Regionsutvalget om fremtidig karbonfangst og -lagring i Europa
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on the Future of Carbon Capture and Storage in Europe
Olje- og energidepartementets innspill omtalt av Norges EU-delegasjon 15.7.2013
BAKGRUNN (fra kommisjonsmeddelelsen, engelsk utgave)
Currently, more than 80% of global primary energy use is fossil based. Over the last decade 85% of the increase in global use of energy was fossil based. Estimates of future energy consumption based on current policies and developments indicate a continuation of this fossil fuel dependence. These trends are not consistent with the necessary mitigation of climate change. They could lead to an average increase in global temperatures of 3.6 or 4 degrees Celsius according to the International Energy Agency (IEA) and a report commissioned by the World Bank respectively. In the transition to a fully low-carbon economy, the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology is one of the key ways to reconcile the rising demand for fossil fuels, with the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Globally CCS is likely to be a necessity in order to keep the average global temperature rise below 2 degrees. CCS is also vital for meeting the Union’s greenhouse gas reduction targets and it offers potential for a low-carbon re-industrialisation of Europe's declining industries. However, this depends on whether CCS can be used as a large scale technology that can be commercially viable to allow for large scale deployment.
The assessments made in the context of the EU's Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050 and the Energy Roadmap 2050 see CCS, if commercialised, as an important technology contributing to low carbon transition in the EU, with 7% to 32% of power generation using CCS by 2050, depending on the scenario considered. Furthermore, in these assessments, by 2035 CCS starts to contribute on a broader scale to reducing CO2 emissions from industrial processes in the EU.
The EU is committed to supporting CCS both financially and with regulatory steps. Following the European Council's decision back in 2007 to support up to 12 large-scale demonstration projects by 2015, the Commission took a number of steps to establish a common regulatory and demonstration support framework
The CCS Directive was adopted to provide a legal framework for CO2 capture, transport and storage, with transposition deadline set at June 2011. The CO2 transport network was included in Europe's Energy Infrastructure Priorities (EIP) tabled in November 2010 and in the Commission's proposal for a regulation on "Guidelines for Trans European Infrastructure". CCS has also become an integral part of the EU R&D initiatives - the European Industrial Initiative (EII) on CCS has been established as part of the Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan.
Moreover two funding instruments have been set up: the European Energy Programme for Recovery (EEPR) and the NER300 programme funded by ETS allowances to channel substantial EU funding to large scale demonstration projects.
Despite these efforts, CCS has not yet taken off in Europe for a variety reasons as briefly set out in this Communication. While it is clear that "no action" is not an option and further steps need to be taken, time is running out, especially for those demonstration projects that have managed to secure part of the necessary financing but have not yet taken their final investment decision. This Communication therefore summarises where we are today taking into account the global context and discusses the available options to encourage CCS demonstration and deployment, in order to support its long term business case as an integral part of the EU's strategy for low carbon transition.