Forslag til europaparlaments- og rådsdirektiv om samvirkingsevnen mellom elektroniske bompengesystemer og forenkling av informasjonsutveksling over landegrensene om manglende betaling av bompenger i Unionen
Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the interoperability of electronic road toll systems and facilitating cross-border exchange of information on the failure to pay road fees in the Union (recast)
BAKGRUNN (fra kommisjonsforslaget, engelsk utgave)
[Red. anm.: Klikk på lenken til "Del av: Veipakken" over for tilknyttede saker.]
Reasons for and objectives of the proposal
Electronic toll collection systems have been deployed at national, regional or local level in 20 Member States and the number of systems is increasing constantly. The vast majority require road users to install special equipment (‘on-board units’ – OBUs) in their vehicles. While a few offer cross-border interoperability, most do not. This results in costs and burdens for users, who must equip their vehicles with multiple OBUs to be able to drive unhindered in different countries. The costs are estimated at EUR 334 million a year currently and are expected to fall to just below EUR 300 million a year by 2025 (with no new action at EU level).
The lack of cross-border interoperability also means costs for authorities, which must procure and service redundant OBUs that work nationally but cannot be used abroad. In just one national system where vehicles’ positions are established using satellite positioning, the one-off cost of procuring OBUs amounts to EUR 120 million and servicing costs to EUR 14.5 million per year.
To address these issues, a Directive on the interoperability of electronic road toll systems was adopted in 2004. A 2009 Commission Decision setting out how interoperability should be achieved in practice provided that specialised ‘European electronic toll service’ (EETS) providers would offer road users OBUs compatible with all electronic toll collection systems in the EU.
The objectives of the legislation remain largely unattained. Some cross-border interoperability has been achieved, but in Croatia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia and the United Kingdom, it is still the case that only national OBUs can be used to pay tolls.
Two main reasons for this have been identified:
• EETS providers face considerable barriers to entry, such as:
- discriminatory treatment by authorities (including protection of incumbents);
- long and changing acceptance procedures; and
- technical specificities in local systems that do not comply with established standards.
The fact that current legislation does not set out sufficiently clearly the obligations of toll chargers (which manage the tolling schemes) and Member States vis-à-vis EETS providers has allowed the barriers to remain in place without infringing EU law. It is therefore important that these obligations are specified in detail, so that EETS services can develop in parallel with national ones;
• The EETS legislation has imposed excessive requirements on EETS providers, such as:
- an obligation to provide their services in all Member States within 24 months of their official registration. Reportedly, this has for a long time discouraged possible providers from registering, as they feared de-registration in their Member States of establishment if they failed to cover all EETS domains in time; and
- an obligation to serve the light-duty vehicle market with expensive satellite-based OBUs (although currently no electronic tolling systems for light-duty vehicles use satellite positioning). This makes it impossible for EETS providers to offer a competitive service to owners of light-duty vehicles. Satellite-based OBUs are still more expensive than the simple microwave OBUs used by national toll-service providers and their additional functionalities and computing power are redundant in the context of tolling light-duty vehicles. As long as satellite OBUs remain so expensive, it is important to provide for a period in which an EETS market for light-duty vehicles can be established by allowing EETS providers to equip their customers with simple OBUs that are compatible with existing tolling schemes.
Another problem relates to the difficulty of enforcing the payment of tolls by owners of vehicles registered in another Member State. A Member State that detects a tolling offence by means of automatic enforcement devices cannot identify the offender on the basis of the licence plate number when the vehicle is registered abroad. There is no legal basis at EU level for the exchange of vehicle registration data between Member States for the purpose of toll enforcement. The resulting revenue leakage for national, regional and local tolling schemes amounts to some EUR 300 million a year.
It is important to monitor the development of new services and applications, in particular that of cooperative Intelligent Transport Services (ITS), to exploit early on their potential for synergies with electronic tolling. It is also important that added-value services be allowed to be offered using the same technological platform (on-board equipment) as that used for electronic toll collection.
This proposal is part of the Regulatory Fitness Programme (REFIT), which focuses on reducing regulatory burden for companies.