Forslag til europaparlaments- og rådsforordning om CO2-utslippsstandarder for nye tunge kjøretøyer
Proposal for Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council setting CO2 emission performance standards for new heavy-duty vehicles
BAKGRUNN (fra kommisjonsforslaget, engelsk utgave)
Reasons for and objectives of the proposal
Under the Paris Agreement, the European Union (EU) has committed to avoiding climate change by limiting global warming to well below 2°C. Decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a key prerequisite for fulfilling this commitment.
The EU 2030 framework for climate and energy includes a target of an at least 40% reduction of domestic EU GHG emissions compared to 1990 levels. All sectors will have to play their part if this level of ambition is to be achieved and if the costs and severe impacts of climate change are to be avoided.
The road transport sector is of key importance for reducing GHG emissions and decarbonising the EU economy. Light-duty vehicles (LDV) – passenger cars and light commercial vehicles (vans) - are already delivering their share of emission reductions and legislation has been proposed in 2017 so that they continue doing so after 2020.
Road freight transport is essential for the development of trade and commerce on the European continent. Lorries carry around 70% of freight transported over land, delivering also essential public services. The road freight and passenger transport sector largely consists of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), with over 600 000 enterprises across the EU employing almost 3 million people. Another 3.5 million people are employed in lorry manufacturing, repair, sales, leasing and insurance.
While CO2 emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (HDV), i.e. lorries, buses and coaches, account for about 6% of total EU emissions and 25% of road transport CO2 emissions in the EU, they are currently not regulated at EU level. This poses three main problems.
First, without any further action, CO2 emissions from HDV are projected to grow by 9% over the period 2010– 2030 due to increasing transport activities. As shown in the Impact Assessment 2 accompanying the post-2020 CO2 emission standards for LDV, further measures are needed in the road transport sector to meet the 2030 national targets set under the Effort Sharing Regulation.
Second, transport operators and their clients currently miss out on possible fuel savings and reduced fuel bills. While cost-effective technologies for reducing emissions are readily available, they are not widely spread on the HDV market. This is to the detriment of transport operators, mainly SMEs or micro enterprises, which can experience fuel costs greater than a quarter of their total operational costs.
Third, EU HDV manufacturers face increasing global competitive pressures as the United States, Canada, Japan and China have already implemented regulatory measures to reduce HDV CO2 emissions. The EU automotive sector will need to keep up with the technological improvements in these markets to preserve its technological leadership in vehicle fuel efficiency.
There are a number of different pieces of EU legislation relevant for the decarbonisation of road transport, which address the abovementioned problems to some extent. This concerns supply, demand, economic and enabling instruments. However, these measures are not sufficient for tackling the key market barriers hampering the uptake of fuel-efficient technologies.
The proposal for CO2 emission performance standards for new HDV sets out a complementary supply-side measure at EU level to address these market barriers, with the following key objectives:
– Reduce CO2 emissions from the HDV sector in line with the requirements of EU climate policy and the Paris Agreement, while reducing air pollution notably in cities.
– Facilitate a reduction in operating costs for transport operators, most of which are SMEs, and more broadly of transportation costs for consumers depending on pass-through of fuel savings.
– Maintain the technological and innovative leadership position of EU HDV manufacturers and component suppliers.