Forslag til europaparlaments- og rådsforordning om utbygging av en infrastruktur for alternativt drivstoff og oppheving av europaparlaments- og rådsdirektiv 2014/94/EU
Proposal for Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure, and repealing Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council
BAKGRUNN (fra kommisjonsforslaget, engelsk utgave)
Reasons for and objectives of the proposal
Mobility and transport are essential for everyone living in Europe and for the European economy as a whole. Free movement of people and goods across the internal borders of the European Union is a fundamental freedom of the EU and its single market. Mobility brings many socio‑economic benefits to the European public and businesses, but also has a growing impact on the environment, including in the form of increased greenhouse gas emissions and local air pollution, which affect human health and well-being.
In December 2019, the Commission adopted the European Green Deal communication. The European Green Deal calls for a 90% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in transport. The aim is for the EU to become a climate-neutral economy by 2050, while also working towards a zero-pollution ambition. In September 2020, the Commission adopted its proposal for a European Climate Law to reduce net emissions of greenhouse gases by at least 55% by 2030 compared to 1990 and to put Europe on a responsible path to becoming climate-neutral by 2050. The Stepping up Europe’s 2030 Climate Ambition communication notes the relevance of a holistic approach to large-scale and local infrastructure planning and the need for an appropriate rollout of alternative fuels infrastructure to support the transition to a nearly zero-emission car fleet by 2050. On 21 April 2021, the Council and Parliament reached provisional political agreement on the European Climate Law.
In December 2020, the Commission adopted the Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy communication). The strategy lays the foundation for how the EU transport system can achieve this transformation and sets concrete milestones to keep the transport system’s journey towards a smart and sustainable future on track. The transport sector is still vastly reliant on fossil fuels. Boosting the uptake of zero- and low-emission vehicles, vessels and aeroplanes and of renewable and low-carbon fuels in all modes of transport is a priority objective in the quest to make all transport modes more sustainable.
The increased deployment and use of renewable and low-carbon fuels must go hand in hand with the creation of a comprehensive network of recharging and refuelling infrastructure based on a geographically fair manner to enable the widespread uptake of low- and zero-emission vehicles in all transport modes. In the passenger car markets particularly, the broad mass of consumers will only switch to zero- emission vehicles once they are sure they can recharge or refuel their vehicles anywhere in the EU and as easily as is currently the case for conventionally fuelled vehicles. It is important that no EU region or territory is left behind and that regional disparities in the deployment of the infrastructure for alternative fuels are well-addressed in the formulation and implementation of national policy frameworks.
Directive 2014/94/EU on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure (‘the Directive’) sets out a framework of common measures for the deployment of such infrastructure in the EU. It requires Member States to set up national policy frameworks to establish markets for alternative fuels and ensure that an appropriate number of publicly accessible recharging and refuelling points is put in place, particularly also to enable free cross-border circulation of such vehicles and vessels on the TEN-T network. In its recent report on the application of Directive 2014/94/EU on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure, the Commission noted some progress in the Directive’s implementation. However, the shortcomings of the current policy framework are also clearly visible: as there is no detailed and binding methodology for Member States to calculate targets and adopt measures, their level of ambition in target setting and supporting policies in place varies greatly. A comprehensive and complete network of alternative fuels infrastructure does not exist across the EU, the report concludes. Likewise, the European Court of Auditors noted in its special report on recharging infrastructure that obstacles to travelling across the EU in electric vehicles remain and that the deployment of recharging infrastructure in the Union needs to accelerate.
The Commission carried out an ex post evaluation of this Directive. The evaluation found that the Directive is not well-adapted to the purpose of serving the increased climate ambition for 2030. The main problems include that Member States’ infrastructure planning on average lacks the level of ambition, consistency and coherence needed, leading to insufficient, unevenly distributed infrastructure. Further interoperability issues with physical connections persist, while new issues have emerged over communication standards, including data exchange among the different actors in the electro-mobility ecosystem. Finally, there is a lack of transparent consumer information and common payment systems, which limits user acceptance. Without further EU action, this lack of interoperable, easy-to use recharging and refuelling infrastructure is likely to become a barrier to the needed market growth of low- and zero-emission vehicles, vessels and – in the future – aircraft.
This proposal is part of the overall set of interlinked policy initiatives under the ‘Fit for 55’ package. These policy initiatives correspond to the actions needed across all sectors of the economy to complement national efforts to achieve the increased climate ambition for 2030, as described in the Commission’s 2021 work programme.
This initiative seeks to ensure the availability and usability of a dense, widespread network of alternative fuels infrastructure throughout the EU. All users of alternative fuel vehicles (including vessels and aircraft) need to be able to move through the EU at ease, enabled by key infrastructure such as motorways, ports and airports. The specific objectives are: (i) ensuring minimum infrastructure to support the required uptake of alternative fuel vehicles across all transport modes and in all Member States to meet the EU’s climate objectives; (ii) ensuring the infrastructure’s full interoperability; and (iii) ensuring full user information and adequate payment options.
Meeting the European Green Deal goal on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from transport and developing a common EU transport market require full connectivity and a seamless user experience along the European transport network for low- and zero-emission vehicles, vessels and aircraft. This in turn requires sufficient quantity and full interoperability of infrastructure across borders. Only a common European legislative framework can reach these objectives. This initiative will contribute to coherent and consistent development and rollout of vehicle fleets, recharging and refuelling infrastructure and user information and services.