Rammeverk for beregning og rapportering av transportrelaterte klimautslipp
BAKGRUNN (fra kommisjonsforslaget)
(1) Supporting efforts towards better sustainability and efficiency of the Union transport system is prerequisite to maintain a stable path towards climate-neutrality by 2050, at the same time taking due account of the need to preserve continuous growth and competitiveness of the European industry.
(2) Greenhouse gas emissions accounting is used in various economic sectors – including transport – to quantify greenhouse gas emissions data from specific activities of businesses and individuals. Better information on the performance of transport services is a powerful tool to create right incentives for transport users for making more sustainable choices, and to influence business decisions of transport organisers and operators. Reliable and comparable greenhouse gas emissions data are the underlying requirement to create these incentives, and thus to stimulate behavioural change among consumers and businesses alike, for contributing to objectives of the European Green Deal for transport, and the European Climate Law.
(3) Despite growing interest of transport stakeholders, the overall uptake of greenhouse gas emissions accounting of transport services is still limited. In most cases, users do not obtain accurate information on the performance of transport services, and transport service organisers and operators do not calculate and disclose their emissions. Disproportionally low uptake of greenhouse gas emissions accounting is observed particularly among small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) that represent the vast majority of businesses offering transport services on the EU market.
(4) In 2011 the European Commission adopted the White Paper on transport which presented a vision for the future of the EU transport system and defined a policy agenda to address the future challenges of transport, notably the need to maintain and develop mobility and considerably reduce the carbon footprint from transport and logistical operations.
(5) The Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy of December 2020 refers to incentives for choosing the most sustainable transport options, within and across the modes. Those incentives include the setting up of a European framework for the harmonised measurement of transport and logistics greenhouse gas emissions, based on globally recognised standards, which could then be used to provide businesses and end-users with an estimate of the carbon footprint of their choices, and increase the demand from end-users and consumers for opting for more sustainable transport and mobility solutions, while avoiding greenwashing.
(6) Laying down harmonised rules for accounting greenhouse gas emissions of freight and passenger transport services is therefore appropriate to attain comparable figures for greenhouse gas emissions of transport services and to avoid misleading information on their performance resulting from the possibility to choose between various emissions calculation methods and input data. Such rules should ensure a level playing field between transport modes, segments, and the Union’s national networks. It should also help create incentives to behavioural change among businesses and customers to reduce greenhouse emissions from transport services through the uptake and use of comparable and reliable greenhouse emissions data.
(7) This Regulation should make available a reference framework for other emissions reduction measures that may be further undertaken by public authorities and industry, including where establishing greenhouse gas transparency clauses in transport contracts, providing information on greenhouse gas emissions of a travel or delivery option to passengers or customers, or setting climate-related criteria for green procurement procedures.
(8) Despite benefits stemming from the increased transparency on the performance of transport services, mandatory application of this Regulation to all entities offering transport services on the Union market would be disproportionate and lead to excessive costs and burden. Therefore, this Regulation should apply only to those entities that decide or are bound by other relevant legislative and non-legislative regimes, to calculate and disclose information on greenhouse gas emissions of freight or passengers transport services that start or end on the territory of the Union. This consequently includes services, the origin or destination points of which are situated in a third country.
(9) This Regulation should not apply to data intermediaries, such as those offering multimodal digital mobility services, where they do not directly calculate information on greenhouse gas emissions of transport services but only disclose information on those emissions provided by a concerned entity or other relevant legal or natural person. However, the data intermediaries should be bound by relevant rules related to the communication and transparency of the disclosed greenhouse gas emissions data, to ensure comparability of those data on the market.
(10) This Regulation should not apply where the calculation and disclosure of greenhouse gas emissions is performed in an aggregated form. This includes situations where mandatory disclosures of environmentally-related information for sustainability reporting and the establishment of environmental accounts for statistical purposes are derived from other Union rules, such as those defined under Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive and Regulation on European environmental economic accounts. Conversely, information obtained on the basis of this Regulation may contribute to developing consolidated emission reports required under other applicable Union law, provided that the respective methodologies and collected data are sufficiently compatible.
(11) A proper method for calculating greenhouse gas emissions of transport services is one of the key aspects for the harmonised Union framework set out by this Regulation. The method should ensure that the emissions calculations performed across a transport chain provide comparable and accurate greenhouse gas emissions data, by following a single set of methodological steps. It should also adequately account for the needs of the transport market, in order to avoid unnecessary complexity, excessive burden and costs, and be accepted by stakeholders.
(12) EN ISO standard 14083:2023, published by the European Committee for Standardisation in April 2023, and transposing ISO standard 14083:2023, was chosen to be the reference methodology for calculating greenhouse gas emissions of transport services under this Regulation. The analysis showed that ISO standard 14083:2023 proved to be the most relevant and proportional in addressing the objectives of this Regulation. The quantification of emissions is performed on a well-to-wheel basis, which includes greenhouse gas emissions stemming from energy provision and vehicle use during transport and hub operations.
(13) Attention should be paid not to deviate from the original methodological choices of EN ISO standard 14083:2023, in order to avoid inconsistencies in the calculation of greenhouse emissions of transport services on the market, especially in the context of international transport chains. However, from time to time, it is appropriate to assess the need of a possible adjustment of EN ISO 14083:2023 from the perspective of Union policies, as well as future amendments to that standard that may be carried out by the European Committee of Standardisation, or another competent body. In case these assessments show a risk that certain part of the standard may create undue imbalances in calculating greenhouse gas emissions of transport services in specific market segments or lead to discrepancies between that standard and the objectives of this Regulation or other applicable Union law, the Commission, in cooperation with Member States, may consider to request the European Committee for Standardisation to revise the standard accordingly, or to decide for the exclusion of that part of the standard from the scope of this Regulation.
(14) To avoid circulation of inaccurate information on the market, a need may arise to clarify the reference methodology in respect of greenhouse gas emission-relevant parameters and assumptions used to calculate emissions before a service is provided. The same applies to other relevant technical parameters related to the allocation of emissions or aggregation of data elements in case the use of those parameters is not explicitly clarified in the methodology.
(15) Different types of input data, including primary and secondary data, can be used to calculate greenhouse gas emissions of transport services. The use of primary data leads to most reliable and accurate results, and therefore should be prioritised to provide for the gradual uptake of these data in greenhouse gas emissions calculation processes. However, primary data might be unattainable or prohibitively expensive for certain stakeholders, especially SMEs. Therefore, the use of secondary data should be allowed under clear conditions.
(16) Regarding secondary data, greenhouse gas emissions of a transport service may be calculated by using default values or modelled data. The use of default values and modelled data should however provide accurate and reliable information on the greenhouse gas emissions of a specific transport service, and therefore those default values should be set and modelled data be developed in neutral and objective manner, based on trusted sources and adequate parameters.
(17) A core EU database of default values for greenhouse gas emission intensity should therefore be established to improve the comparability of greenhouse gas emissions results obtained in the application of this Regulation. However, given the sectorial, national and regional specificities of those default values across the Union, other relevant databases and datasets operated by third parties should be allowed on the condition that they undergo a technical quality check at Union level.
(18) When establishing greenhouse gas emission intensity of a transport service, greenhouse gas emission factors for transport energy carriers are required to derive estimates of greenhouse gas emissions reflecting the amount of energy used in well-to-wheel perspective. Hence, a central EU database of greenhouse gas emission factors of energy carriers should be set up to guarantee the comparability and quality of input data.
(19) The development and maintenance of the EU databases of default values for greenhouse gas emission intensity and greenhouse gas emission factors, as well as the technical quality check of external databases and datasets operated by third parties should be undertaken by a neutral and competent body operating at Union level. Given its remit, the European Environmental Agency is best placed to provide the necessary assistance for the proper implementation of this part of the Regulation. Where relevant, this work may rely on contribution from and be supported by other sectorial EU bodies, in accordance of separate Union law.
(20) Modelled data may be used if they are based on a model established in conformity with the reference methodology and, where relevant, other provisions regarding the use of secondary data and calculation tools set out in this Regulation.
(21) Regulation (EU) 2015/757 and Directive 2003/87/EC require the collection, calculation and annual reporting of CO2 emissions from ships and aircrafts, respectively. Regulation (EU) 2015/757 and Directive 2003/87/EC may be to certain extent complementary to the provisions set out in this Regulation, especially in terms of producing fuel burnt data as an input for quantifying emissions of transport services. Input data for generating greenhouse gas emissions of transport services may also originate from the implementation of other legislative frameworks, such as Regulation (EU) 2019/1242 and Regulation (EU) 2019/631 .
(22) It is appropriate to lay down common metrics to express greenhouse gas emissions output data that underlie the comparability of those data and allow for effective benchmarking of various transport services. Common metrics should also enable clear communication from a data provider and accurate understanding of this communication by a data recipient.
(23) Any disaggregated information on greenhouse gas emissions of a transport service that is disclosed to a third party for commercial or regulatory purposes in accordance with the scope of this Regulation, should indispensably and prominently include output data established pursuant to the specific rules for calculating greenhouse emissions set out by this Regulation. Additional data elements, serving other purposes than those defined under this Regulation, can be added, where relevant.
(24) To demonstrate the compliance with the requirements set out in this Regulation, an entity calculating and disclosing information on greenhouse gas emissions of a transport service should be able to draw an evidence to substantiate the respective output data. The evidence should be drawn pursuant to the rules on reporting at a transport service level set out by standard EN ISO 14083:2023, and shall be available upon request of a competent authority, such as a court, or any other third party if so required under separate arrangements, including in the business-to-business perspective.
(25) Unless separate arrangements apply, a data intermediary collecting information on greenhouse gas emissions of a transport service from a concerned entity or other relevant legal or natural person, and disclosing it on the market, should not be considered liable in case this information breaches any of the requirements related to the calculation and verification of greenhouse gas emissions of transport services, and the certification of calculation tools, set out by this Regulation. However, the data intermediary should make effort to prevent from inaccurate or incorrect information to be disclosed, and should respect rules related to the greenhouse gas emissions output data, communication and transparency. In addition, the data intermediary should provide the source of this information, to allow for the identification of the respective information provider.
(26) External calculation tools that are provided on the market for the broader commercial and non-commercial use can facilitate the accounting of greenhouse gas emissions of transport services, thus supporting its uptake by the wider groups of stakeholders. The use of these tools should be certified to guarantee that they conform to the requirements of this Regulation, especially as regards the use of the common reference methodology and an appropriate set of input data.
(27) A properly designed verification system for the conformity of greenhouse gas emissions output data disclosed on the market and underlying calculation processes, to the requirements set out under this Regulation, should substantially increase trust in the reliability and accuracy of those data. Entities that have successfully undergone the conformity assessment should be entitled to obtain a proof of compliance, to be commonly recognised across the Union. Where primary data were included, the proof of compliance should acknowledge it, especially to incentivise the collection and use of primary data by any entity concerned by the rules set out by this Regulation.
(28) Administrative burden linked to the verification could be disproportionate for smaller companies and therefore it should be avoided. To that end, SMEs should be exempted from the requirements related to the verification, unless these enterprises wish to obtain a respective proof of compliance. In addition, large enterprises should take into account the principle of proportionality when considering requesting the verification of conformity from value chain partners, in particular SMEs..
(29) In case the verification of information on greenhouse gas emissions data of transport services is organised in accordance with specific rules set out by other Union legislation, including a regulation on ensuring a level playing field for sustainable air transport and implemented by the European Union Aviation Safety Agency, these rules shall be treated in an equivalent manner, under the condition that the verification assessment is established consistently with the requirements of this Regulation.
(30) In order to allow for the efficient functioning of this Regulation, the power to adopt acts in accordance with Article 290 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union should be delegated to the Commission in respect of assessing and excluding certain elements of the reference methodology; submitting requests to the European Committee for Standardisation, establishing rules to conduct the technical quality check of external databases of default values, adapting metrics for output greenhouse gas emissions data and establishing further methods and criteria of accreditation of conformity assessment bodies. It is of particular importance that the Commission carry out appropriate consultations during its preparatory work, including at expert level, and that those consultations be conducted in accordance with the principles laid down in the Interinstitutional Agreement of 13 April 2016 on Better Law-Making. In particular, to ensure equal participation in the preparation of delegated acts, the European Parliament and the Council receive all documents at the same time as Member States' experts, and their experts systematically have access to meetings of Commission expert groups dealing with the preparation of delegated acts.
(31) In order to ensure uniform conditions for the implementation of this Regulation, implementing powers concerning the certification of calculation tools and the verification of the greenhouse gas emissions data, should be conferred on the Commission. Those powers should be exercised in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council.
(32) The comparability of greenhouse gas emissions data of transport services and better uptake of greenhouse gas emissions accounting in business practice, are not objectives that can be sufficiently achieved by the Member States without risking to introduce red tape on the internal market and with additional costs and administrative burden for industries. Those objectives can rather, by reason of network effects of Member States acting together, be better achieved at Union level. Therefore, the Union may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 of the Treaty on European Union.
(33) In accordance with the principle of proportionality, it is necessary and appropriate for the achievement of the basic objective of incentivising behavioural change among businesses and customers to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transport services through the uptake and use of comparable and reliable greenhouse gas emissions data to lay down rules on the accounting of greenhouse gas emissions of transport services. This Regulation does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve the objectives pursued, in accordance with Article 5(4) on the Treaty on European Union.