Skipsforurensningsdirektivet (forslag 2023)
BAKGRUNN (fra kommisjonsforslaget)
(1) The Union's maritime policy is aimed at a high level of safety and environmental protection. This can be achieved through compliance with international conventions, codes and resolutions while maintaining the freedom of navigation as provided for by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
(2) The International Convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (‘Marpol 73/78’) provides for general prohibitions on discharges from ships at sea, but also regulates the conditions under which certain substances can be discharged into the marine environment.
(3) Since the adoption of Directive 2005/35/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council , Marpol 73/78 and its Annexes have been the subject of important amendments, which have put in place stricter norms and prohibitions for the discharges of substances from ships into the sea. These changes as well as the lessons learned from the implementation of Directive 2005/35/EC should be taken into account.
(4) Directive (EU) 2019/883 of the European Parliament and of the Council ensures that waste is delivered to Union ports, where it is collected by adequate port reception facilities. The enforcement of Directive 2019/883/EC is, together with Directive 2005/35/EC, a key instrument in preventing ship-source pollution. In order to ensure an effective, integrated and coherent enforcement system vis-à-vis the provisions of Directive (EU) 2019/883 on waste delivery to port reception facilities, Directive 2005/35/EC should be amended in order to extend its scope to Annexes IV to VI to Marpol 73/78, in view of discouraging ships from discharging illegally polluting substances into the sea, instead of delivering them in port reception facilities in accordance with the provisions of Directive (EU) 2019/883.
(5) Directive (EU) 2019/883 does not cover under its scope Annex III of Marpol 73/78 because packaged goods are not categorised as waste, therefore they are usually not delivered in port reception facilities. However, it cannot be ruled out that harmful substances carried in packaged form could be illegally jettisoned into the sea. In light of the above, the scope of Directive 2005/35/EC should be extended to Annex III to Marpol 73/78. Accordingly, jettisoning of harmful substances should be prohibited under Directive 2005/35/EC, unless it is found by competent authorities that it was necessary for securing the safety of the ship or saving life at sea.
(6) Marpol 73/78 includes emissions from ships in the definition of discharges in Article 2 thereof. Annex VI to Marpol 73/78 addresses the prevention of air pollution from ships. Annex VI and the corresponding IMO guidelines on Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems (EGCS) (Resolution MEPC.340 (77)) allow for the use of EGCS by ships of as an alternative compliance method to reduce sulphur oxide (SOx) emissions. Annex VI regulate the residue and discharge water from EGCS, either by prohibiting their discharge at sea and requiring their delivery to adequate port reception facilities (in the case of EGCS residue from close loops systems) or regulating the conditions for their discharge (in the case of discharge water from open loop systems). Directive (EU) 2016/802 of the European Parliament and of the Council transposes international SOx standards in Union law, while Directive (EU) 2019/883 ensures that EGCS residue is delivered in port reception facilities. Since EGCS residue and discharge water may cause pollution to the marine environment, the penalties provided under Directive 2005/35/EC should apply in case of illegal discharges. For those reasons, the scope of Directive 2005/35/EC should be extended to EGCS residue and discharge water, taking into account the guidelines developed by the IMO, without prejudice to the provisions of Directive (EU) 2016/802 setting out any stricter discharge norms and penalties therefor.
(7) Directive (EU) 2023/xxxx ensures common definitions of environmental criminal offences and the availability of dissuasive, effective and proportionate criminal sanctions for serious environmental offences. Directive 2005/35/EC was amended by Directive 2009/123/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, which introduced criminal penalties for certain infringements of Directive 2005/35/EC, which should now fall within the scope of Directive (EU) 2023/xxxx. Accordingly, the provisions of Directive 2005/35/EC which were added or replaced by Directive 2009/123/EC should be deleted from Directive 2005/35/EC.
(8) Administrative penalties introduced in transposition of Directive 2005/35/EC should be without prejudice to Directive (EU) 2023/xxxx. Member States should define the scope of administrative and criminal law enforcement with regards to ship-source pollution offences according to their national law. In the application of national law transposing Directive 2005/35/EC, Member States should ensure that the imposition of criminal penalties and of administrative penalties respects the principles of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, including the prohibition of ne bis in idem.
(9) The penalties provisioned by Directive 2005/35/EC should be strengthened by ensuring consistent application of administrative penalties throughout the Union. To strengthen the deterrent effect of penalties imposed for ship-source pollution offences, such penalties should take at least the form of fines imposed to the company of the ship, unless the company can prove that the master of the ship or a member or members of the crew, the latter not acting under the responsibility of the master, was responsible for the discharge. In this context, the company of ship means the shipowner or any other organisation or person, such as the manager or the bareboat charterer, which has assumed the responsibility for the operation of the ship from the shipowner, in alignment with the International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention (‘ISM Code’), implemented in Union law by virtue of Regulation (EC) No 336/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Directive 2005/35/EC should recognise that the management of the ship could be delegated by the registered owner to a different entity, which should then be held in the first place responsible for not implementing its obligations under the ISM Code to ensure the avoidance of damage to the environment or the assignment of shipboard operations to qualified personnel.
(10) National administrative and judicial authorities should take into account all relevant circumstances when determining the level of penalties to be imposed to the polluter. Taking into account the diverse nature of polluting substances covered under Directive 2005/35/EC and the importance of consistent application of penalties across the Union in light of the cross-border nature of the regulated behaviour, further approximation and effectiveness of penalty levels should be fostered through the establishment of concrete criteria for the application of penalties for discharges of different polluting substances. In order to ensure the uniform conditions for the application of penalties, implementing powers should be conferred to the Commission. Those powers should be exercised in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The examination procedure should be used for the adoption of these implementing acts.
(11) When a Member State suspects that a ship which is voluntarily within its port or at an off-shore terminal committed an illegal discharge, an appropriate inspection should take place to establish the circumstances. In order to assist Member States with their obligations under Directive 2005/35/EC to inspect such ships, Annex I to Directive 2005/35/EC provides an indicative list of irregularities or information that should be taken into account by competent authorities on a case-by-case basis when determining whether a ship should be considered suspect.
(12) The accompanying measures for cooperation and the reporting obligations of Member States have not been sufficient until now to allow a complete analysis whether polluters face effective, dissuasive and proportionate penalties and that adequate data is made available to the Commission to monitor the implementation of Directive 2005/35/EC. In order to ensure the effective and consistent enforcement of Directive 2005/35/EC, exchange of information and experience should be facilitated through enhanced cooperation, while at the same time ensuring that adequate data are made available to the Commission in order to allow the proper monitoring of the implementation of Directive 2005/35/EC.
(13) The existing satellite-based service ‘CleanSeaNet’ which notifies Member States authorities on potential illegal discharges, should be further enhanced to include information on the additional polluting substances under the scope of Directive 2005/35/EC. Information relating to potential or actual discharges reported by Member States in accordance with Directive 2005/35/EC and to other Union maritime safety databases, such as the Union Maritime Information and Exchange System established by Directive 2002/59/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (‘SafeSeaNet’) and the Inspection Database set up by Directive 2009/16/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (‘THETIS’) should be integrated and disseminated in a user-friendly electronic format to the national authorities involved in the enforcement chain in order to facilitate their timely response. Such information, when relating to an actual or potential discharge of Exhaust Gas Cleaning System residue from a ship, should further be automatically disseminated to the dedicated module of THETIS set up by under Commission Implementing Decision 2015/253 (‘THETIS-EU’), in order to assist Member States with enforcement actions undertaken in accordance with the provisions of Directive (EU) 2016/802. In order to ensure the effective monitoring of the Directive’s implementation by all Member States, a verification rate of 10% per year of the alerts sent by CleanSeaNet should be ensured by each Member State within the first three years form the transposition of this Directive. Access to this information should be granted to the authorities of other Member States having an interest in it under their roles as port States of the next port of call, coastal States affected by the potential discharge or flag States of the ship in order to facilitate effective and timely cross-border cooperation, minimise the administrative burden of enforcement activities and ultimately effectively penalise offenders for infringements of Directive 2005/35/EC.
(14) The Sub-group on Waste from Ships, which was set up under the European Sustainable Shipping Forum, and which brought together a wide range of experts in the field of ship-source pollution and the management of waste from ships, was adjourned in December 2017 in view of the start of interinstitutional negotiations of Directive (EU) 2019/883. Since that temporary Sub-group provided valuable guidance and expertise to the Commission, a similar expert group should be created with a mandate of exchanging experience on the application of this Directive in order to assist Member States in building their capacity to detect and verify pollution incidents and ensure the effective enforcement of Directive 2005/35/EC.
(15) The European Maritime Safety Agency (‘EMSA’) established by Regulation (EU) xxxx/xxxx should provide the necessary support to the Commission to ensure the implementation of this Directive.
(16) Member States should report to the Commission the information needed to ensure a proper monitoring of the implementation of Directive 2005/35/EC. In order to limit administrative burden and assist the Commission in analysing the data provided by Member States, such information should be reported by Member States through a dedicated electronic reporting tool. To the extent that such information relates to penalties imposed to or involving natural persons, such information shall be anonymised. In order to ensure that information reported in accordance with Directive 2005/35/EC is comparable in type among Member States and collected on the basis of a harmonised electronic format and procedure for reporting, implementing powers should be conferred on the Commission. Those powers should be exercised in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 182/2011.
(17) In order to assist Member States with the development of their capacities regarding effective enforcement of Directive 2005/35/EC by the national administrative and judicial authorities, the Commission should provide Member States with guidance and training relating to, inter alia, best methods and practices for detection, verification and evidence collection, as well as guidance on relevant regulatory developments of Marpol 73/78 and on technological developments available, including new digital tools, in order to facilitate effective, cost-efficient and targeted enforcement activities.
(18) In order to increase public awareness in ship-source pollution discharges and improve environmental protection, information provided by the Member States on the application of Directive 2005/35/EC should be made publicly available through a Union-wide overview and include the information listed in Annex II of Directive 2005/35/EC. Directive 2003/4/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council aims to guarantee the right of access to environmental information in the Member States in line with the Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters (Aarhus Convention), to which the Union is a party. The Commission should protect the confidentiality of information received by Member States, without prejudice to the provisions of Directive 2003/4/EC.
(19) Directive (EU) 2019/1937 of the European Parliament and of the Council lays down minimum standards on reporting of breaches of Union law, including of Directive 2005/35/EC and for the protection of persons reporting such breaches. Member States should ensure, in particular, that crew under the scope of Directive (EU) 2019/1937 reporting actual or potential illegal discharges are granted protection. In addition to the existing reporting channels provided at national level as regulated under Directive (EU)2019/1937, the Commission should make available a centralised online external reporting channel for reporting actual or potential illegal discharges and relay such reports to the Member State or Member States concerned, which should subsequently handle these reports in accordance with Directive (EU) 2019/1937, including with regards to acknowledgement of receipt, adequate feedback and follow-up. The Commission should ensure the protection of the confidentiality of the identity of reporting persons, including, where necessary, by restricting the exercise of certain data protection rights of persons concerned, such as of individuals included in the report as participating in the potential illegal discharge, in line with Article 25(1) points (c) and (h) and Article 25(2) of Regulation (EU) 2018/1725 of the European Parliament and of the Council, to the extent and as long as necessary to prevent and address attempts to hinder reporting or to impede, frustrate or slow down follow-up, in particular investigations, or attempts to find out the identity of the reporting persons.
(20) The European Data Protection Supervisor was consulted in accordance with Article 42(1) of Regulation (EU) 2018/1725 and delivered an opinion on [xx xx 2023].
(21) Discussions are ongoing at the IMO regarding new environmental issues in relation to international shipping, resulting in both water and air pollution. These include the water pollutants of marine litter, such as the loss of containers and plastic pellets, and underwater noise and air pollutants such as black carbon. These discussions may result in new regulations under Marpol 73/78. Moreover, Directive 2008/56/EC of the European parliament and of the Council requires Member States to achieve good environmental status in the marine environment, which includes, amongst others, marine litter and underwater noise from ships as qualitative descriptors. Relatedly, Directive (EU) 2023/xxxx sets limit values for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) resulting from nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. Shipping activities contribute to higher NO2 levels in coastal and port areas. Against this background, a future review of Directive 2005/35/EC should take into account new developments and the Commission should examine the possibility of modifying the scope of this Directive, if appropriate, in view of any new international standards under Marpol 73/78. A future review should assess the possibility of modifying the scope of Directive 2005/35/EC, if appropriate, to incorporate SOx and NOx emissions, as regulated in Annex VI to Marpol, based on the experience gained in implementing the Directive (EU) 2016/802 and on the development and maturity of monitoring and detecting SOx and NOx emissions from ships, with a view to ensure a coherent, efficient and effective enforcement regime, as well as the imposition of dissuasive penalties therefor, in line with the Zero Pollution Action Plan and, in particular, Flagship 5 thereof ‘Enforcing zero pollution together’.
(22) Since the objectives of this Directive cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States by reason of the cross-border damage which may be caused by illegal discharges covered by this Directive and the availability of effective, dissuasive and proportionate penalties across the Union for such discharges but can rather, by reason of scale and effects of the proposed action, be better achieved at Union level, the Union may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 of the Treaty on European Union. In accordance with the principle of proportionality, as set out in that Article, this Directive does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve those objectives.
(23) This Directive respects the fundamental rights and observes the principles recognised in particular by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, including the protection of personal data, the right to an effective remedy and to a fair trial, the presumption of innocence and right of defence, the principles of legality and proportionality of criminal offences and penalties, and the right not to be tried or punished twice in criminal proceedings for the same offence. This Directive seeks to ensure full respect for those rights and principles and should be implemented accordingly.
(24) Therefore, Directive 2005/35/EC should be amended.