Forslag til europaparlaments- og rådsforordning om endring av forordning (EU) 2019/631 med hensyn til styrking av CO2-utslippsstandardene for nye personbiler og nye lette nyttekjøretøyer i tråd med Unionens økte klimaambisjoner
Proposal for Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Regulation (EU) 2019/631 as regards strengthening the CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars and new light commercial vehicles in line with the Union’s increased climate ambition
BAKGRUNN (fra kommisjonsforslaget, engelsk utgave)
Reasons for and objectives of the proposal
The European Green Deal Communication launched a new growth strategy for the EU that aims to transform the EU into a fair and prosperous society, with a modern, resource-efficient and competitive economy. It reaffirms the Commission’s ambition to increase its climate targets and make Europe the first climate-neutral continent by 2050. Furthermore, it aims to protect the health and well-being of citizens from environment-related risks and impacts. The necessity and value of the European Green Deal have only grown in light of the very severe effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health and economic well-being of the Union’s citizens.
Tackling climate change is an urgent challenge. In line with the scientific findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report global net-zero CO2 emissions need to be achieved around 2050, and neutrality for all other greenhouse gases later in the century. This urgent challenge requires the EU to step up its action and demonstrate global leadership by becoming climate neutral by 2050. This objective is set out in the Communication ‘A Clean Planet for all’ - A European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate-neutral economy’.
Based on a comprehensive impact assessment, the Commission’s Communication of September 2020 on Stepping up Europe’s 2030 climate ambition proposed to raise the EU's ambition and put forward a comprehensive plan to increase the European Union’s binding target for 2030 towards at least 55% net emission reduction, in a responsibleway. Raising the 2030 ambition now helps give certainty to policymakers and investors, so that decisions made in the coming years do not lock in emission levels inconsistent with the EU’s objective to be climate neutral by 2050. The 2030 target is in linewith the Paris Agreement objective to keep the global temperature increase to well below 2°C and pursue efforts to keep it to 1.5°C.
The European Council endorsed the new EU binding target for 2030 at its meeting of December 2020. It also called on the Commission “to assess how all economic sectors can best contribute to the 2030 target and to make the necessary proposals, accompanied by an in-depth examination of the environmental, economic and social impact at Member State level, taking into account national energy and climate plans and reviewing existing flexibilities”.
To this end, the European Climate Law, as agreed with the co-legislators, will make the EU’s climate neutrality target legally binding, and raise the 2030 ambition by setting the target of at least 55% net emission reduction by 2030 compared to 1990.
In order to follow the pathway proposed in the European Climate Law, and deliver this increased level of ambition for 2030, the Commission has reviewed the climate and energy legislation currently in place that is expected to only reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2030 and by 60% by 2050.
This ‘fit for 55’ legislative package, as announced in the Commission’s Climate Target Plan, is the most comprehensive building block in the efforts to implement the ambitious new 2030 climate target, and all economic sectors and policies will need to make their contribution, including road transport.
Transport is the only sector where greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been on the rise. The GHG emissions from road transport are no exception. They represent almost 20% of total EU GHG emissions and have significantly increased since 1990. Air quality continues to be impacted by traffic and congestion, leading to increasing number of cities introducing low-and zero-emission zones restricting local access for vehicles with internal combustion engines and to certain Member States announcing the phase-out of sales of internal combustion engine cars.
The automotive industry is of key importance for the EU economy and accounts for over 7% of the EU's GDP. It provides jobs - directly or indirectly, in manufacturing, sales, maintenance, construction and transport and transport services - to 14.6 million Europeans. The EU is among the world's biggest producers of motor vehicles and demonstrates technological leadership in this sector. EU automotive investment in R&D amounts to €60.9 billion annually.
The automotive sector is undergoing a significant structural transformation including changes in clean and digital technologies, in particular the shift from internal combustion engines towards zero-and low-emission technologies as well as increasingly connected vehicles. The ambition should be to empower the automotive sector to continue and strengthen its leadership in the technologies of the future, especially in the face of international competition.
The Commission’s Strategy for Sustainable and Smart Mobility addresses the broader challenges of the transition to zero-emission mobility and sets out a roadmap for putting European transport firmly on the right track for a sustainable and smart future.
The Strategy’s accompanying Action Plan includes policies aimed, amongst others, at boosting the uptake of zero-emission vehicles and related infrastructure. The shift toward zero-emission vehicles will prevent pollution and improve the health of our citizens; this is also supporting the Zero Pollution Ambition of the European Green Deal, as articulated in the Zero Pollution Action Plan.
The CO2 emission standards for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles are key drivers for reducing CO2 emissions in the sector, as shown in the Communication on Stepping up Europe’s 2030 climate ambition.
The general objectives of this proposal are to contribute to achieving climate neutrality by 2050 and to this end, in line with the European Climate Law, to contribute to reaching at least 55% net greenhouse gas emission reductions by 2030 compared to 1990.
The proposal serves three specific objectives. The first is to contribute to the 2030 and 2050 climate objectives by reducing CO2 emissions from cars and light commercial vehicles.
Considering that the effect of the CO2 emission standards on the reduction of emissions from the stock of vehicles is not immediate, and considering the dynamics of the fleet renewal, early action is important to ensure the achievementof the long term objective.
The second specific objective is to provide benefits to consumers and citizens from a wider deployment of zero-emission vehicles. The key expected benefits concern not only improved air quality, in particular in cities. The CO2 emission performance standards trigger manufacturers to increase the supply of zero-emission vehicles, and with that increased supply consumers can benefit from more affordable zero-emission vehicle models and significant energy savings from the use of zero-emission vehicles, hence decreasing the total cost of ownership of such vehicles.
The third specific objective is to stimulate innovation in zero-emission technologies, thus strengthening the technological leadership of the automotive value chain and stimulating employment in the EU. While the automotive sector has been successful in developing and manufacturing advanced internal combustion engine vehicle technologies and marketing them world-wide, it needs to increasingly channel investments in zero-emission technologies. Within this global context, also the EU automotive chain must be a leading actor in the ongoing global transition towards zero-emission mobility. The proposal is technology neutral and will be accompanied by measures to boost zero-emission fuels and the charging infrastructure.
Additional co-benefits are expected to be the increased energy efficiency and energy security.