Forslag til europaparlaments- og rådsforordning om endring av forordning (EU) 2018/841 med hensyn til formål, forenkling av reglene for overholdelse, etablering av medlemsstatenes mål for 2030 og forpliktelsen til den kollektive oppnåelsen av klimanøytralitet innen 2035 i sektoren for arealbruk, skogbruk og jordbruk, og (EU) 2018/1999 med hensyn til forbedring av overvåking, rapportering, sporing av fremgang, samt gjennomgang
Proposal for Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Regulation (EU) 2018/841 as regards the scope, simplifying the compliance rules, setting out the targets of the Member States for 2030 and committing to the collective achievement of climate neutrality by 2035 in the land use, forestry and agriculture sector, and (EU) 2018/1999 as regards improvement in monitoring, reporting, tracking of progress and review
Dansk departementsnotat offentliggjort 8.9.2021
BAKGRUNN (fra kommisjonsforslaget, engelsk utgave)
Reasons for and objectives of the proposal
The European Green Deal Communication launched a new growth strategy for the EU that aims to transform the EU into a fair and prosperous society with a modern, resource-efficient and competitive economy. It reaffirms the Commission’s ambition to increase its climate targets and make Europe the first climate-neutral continent by 2050. Furthermore, it aims to protect the health and well-being of citizens from environment-related risks and impacts. The necessity and value of the European Green Deal have only grown in light of the very severe effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health and economic well-being of the Union’s citizens.
Tackling climate change is an urgent challenge. In line with the scientific findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report, global net-zero CO2 emissions need to be achieved around 2050, and neutrality for all other greenhouse gases later in the century. This urgent challenge requires the EU to step up its action and demonstrate global leadership by becoming climate neutral by 2050. This objective is set out in the Communication ‘A Clean Planet for all’ - A European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate-neutral economy’.
Based on a comprehensive impact assessment, the Commission’s Communication of 17 September 2020 on Stepping up Europe’s 2030 climate ambition 3 proposed to raise the EU’s ambition and put forward a comprehensive plan to increase the European Union’s binding target for 2030 towards at least 55% net emission reduction, in a responsible way. Raising the 2030 ambition now helps give certainty to policymakers and investors, so that decisions made in the coming years do not lock in emission levels inconsistent with the EU’s objective to be climate neutral by 2050. The 2030 target is in line with the Paris Agreement objective to keep the global temperature increase to well below 2°C and pursue efforts to keep it to 1.5°C.
The Communication proposes to move towards a more stringent contribution from the LULUCF sector and, as a further step, to combine the agriculture non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions with the land use, land use change and forestry sector, thereby creating a newly regulated land sector (covering emissions and removals from agriculture, forestry and other land use). This can promote synergies between land-based mitigation actions and enable more integrated policymaking and policy implementation at the national and EU level. The analysis underpinning the Communication shows that the land sector would have the potential to become climate-neutral by around 2035 in a cost-effective manner, and subsequently generate more CO2 removals than greenhouse gas emissions.
The European Council endorsed the new EU binding target for 2030 at its meeting of December 2020. It also called on the Commission “to assess how all economic sectors can best contribute to the 2030 target and to make the necessary proposals, accompanied by an in-depth examination of the environmental, economic and social impact at Member State level, taking into account national energy and climate plans and reviewing existing flexibilities”.
To this end, the European Climate Law makes the EU’s climate neutrality target legally binding, and raises the 2030 ambition by setting the target of at least 55% net emission reduction by 2030 compared to 1990.
In order to follow the pathway proposed in the European Climate Law, and deliver this increased level of ambition for 2030, the Commission has reviewed the climate and energy legislation currently in place that is expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2030 and by 60% by 2050.
This ‘Fit for 55’ legislative package, as announced in the Commission's Climate Target Plan, is the most comprehensive building block in the efforts to implement the ambitious new 2030 climate target, and all economic sectors and policies will need to make their contribution.
The initial regulatory framework for the land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) sector, as laid down in Regulation (EU) 2018/841, was adopted in 2018 and covers CO2 emissions and removals and greenhouse gas emissions of CH4 and N2O resulting from the management of land, forests and biomass during the period from 2021 to 2030. It contributes to the previous Union’s emission reduction target of at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990, by ensuring that the sum of total emissions does not exceed the sum of total removals generated by the sector after the application of the accounting rules and of the flexibility with the “effort sharing” (or ESR) sector set out by Regulation (EU) 2018/842.
The proposal to amend Regulation (EU) 2018/841 as part of the ‘Fit for 55’ package aims to strengthen the contribution of the LULUCF sector to the increased overall climate ambition for 2030. To this end, the proposal: sets out the overall Union target of net greenhouse gas removals in the LULUCF sector to 310 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent in 2030; reinforces the obligation for Member States to submit integrated mitigation plans for the land sector and enhances monitoring requirements using digital technologies; aligns the objectives with related policy initiatives of biodiversity and bioenergy; determines the Union target of climate neutrality for 2035 in the land sector (which combines the LULUCF sector and the non-CO2 agricultural sector); and commits the Commission to make proposals for national contributions to the 2035 target by 2025.
The proposed amendment introduces only minor, non-substantive, changes in the LULUCF regulatory framework for the first compliance period, i.e. from 2021 to 2025. In contrast, significant change takes place with the beginning of the second compliance period from 2026 to 2030. In order to simplify implementation and compliance, the Kyoto-inspired land accounting rules will no longer be applied post 2025, and the flexibility between LULUCF and with the “effort sharing” sectors will be adjusted, in line with the European Climate Law. The overall Union target of net greenhouse gas removals of 310 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent will be distributed between Member States as annual national targets for the period from 2026 to 2030, and be based on the emissions and removals reported in the greenhouse gas inventories and the areas of managed land. A new system of governance of the target compliance will be introduced and the land use flexibility mechanism addressing risk of non-compliance by Member States will be adjusted. From 2031 onwards, the scope of the Regulation will be expanded to include non-CO2 emissions from the agriculture sector, thus covering the whole land sector framework for the first time with one climate policy instrument.
Klima- og miljødepartementet